Future climatic changes, associated with a predicted increase in air temperature and sea level on a global scale, could cause large-scale changes with radical consequences within the coastal zone of the Thermaikos Gulf area. Thus, a possible climatic shift towards more arid climatic conditions with longer summers and lower precipitation levels will have a series of environmental impacts, such as: degrading the soil structure i.e. by increasing salt accumulation in the top soil, a general sort of freshwaters inducing lowering of the water table, and different possibly stratification of coastal and shelf water masses. Subsequently, the bio-climatic zonations will gradually shifts northwards, with several species forced to migrate or disappear and new ones to appear; the latter may include bacteria and insects. Taking into account the vulnerability of the coastal system, in response to human impact and climatic changes, an integrated regional management programme concerning the socio-economic and environmental issues should be established; this could be set against a background of any future planned socioeconomic development and ecosystem protection.